Diabetes mellitus, often called type-2 diabetes, is a metabolic disorder. It is a condition where you experience a high blood sugar level for a prolonged period.
Diabetes sets in when there is a problem with the secretion of insulin. Insulin is released by the pancreas (an organ located behind the stomach), which helps you metabolize sugar and fat in your food.
Diabetes is caused when:
- The pancreas doesn’t produce insulin
- The pancreas doesn’t provide enough insulin
- The cells of your body don’t respond appropriately to insulin
- There are three types of diabetes-
Type 1 Diabetes: In this case, the beta cells responsible for the production of insulin in the pancreas are destroyed by your immune system. The glucose in your food doesn’t get metabolized, resulting in a high blood sugar level.
Type-2 Diabetes: This is caused when the body doesn’t respond to the insulin it produces—a condition also known as insulin resistance.
Gestational Diabetes: This form of diabetes occurs when pregnant women develop a high blood sugar level.
This type of diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar level, insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin.
It is commonly seen in people who lack adequate exercise, and people prone to obesity. 90% of all diabetes cases are of the Type 2 category. It can be prevented by exercising regularly and keeping tabs on your weight. It used to affect middle-aged people and senior citizens but is becoming more and more common among young people today.
Causes Of Type-2 Diabetes
Type-2 Diabetes is caused due to two main types of factors: lifestyle factors and genetic factors.
Lifestyle Factors- This includes obesity and being overweight. Lack of exercise, poor diet, stress and urbanization are also common causes under this category. Excess body weight is one the leading causes of Type-2 Diabetes. It may occur due to a lack of exercise. Consuming too many sugary sweets and drinks can also result in this disease.
Genetic Factors- Many genes contribute to the development of Type-2 Diabetes. By 2011, around 36 genes have been found that contribute towards the development of diabetes. Chances of occurrence of Type-2 Diabetes are more in one identical twin if the other has developed it.
Symptoms Of Type-2 Diabetes
Some of the symptoms of Type-2 Diabetes include blurred vision, frequent headaches and the loss of consciousness.
The sufferer may feel tired and weak. They may encounter weight loss. Frequent urination is one of the symptoms, which is often accompanied by a dryness of the mouth. Other symptoms include increased thirst and hunger. Type-2 Diabetes may also cause the slow healing of sores, an increased likelihood of itchy skin, and frequent yeast infections.
Type-2 Diabetes Treatment: Prevention, The First Step
Type-2 Diabetes, as we’ve discussed, is caused mainly due to your lifestyle and genetics.
However, there are specific preventive measures you can follow to ensure that Type-2 Diabetes is prevented. Avoid getting overweight; this way, you can reduce your chances contracting this dreadful disease. Make a habit of regular exercise. Don’t worry, ‘regular exercise; does not necessarily imply weight loss. Exercise without losing weight is also equally beneficial in preventing Type-2 Diabetes.
A proper diet is crucial to prevent this disease. No particular diet chart has to be followed; simply consume food with decent nutritional value. Smoking is harmful in many ways and plays a causative role in Type-2 Diabetes as well. There are also medicines you can get to prevent Type-2 Diabetes. Metformin is recommended by the American Diabetes Association for prevention. Lifestyle changes are far more efficient than taking medication in the prevention of the disease, though.
The Treatment Of Type-2 Diabetes
Type-2 Diabetes treatment is time-bound, which means that you need to get the disease taken care of as soon as possible. This can be done by:
Healthy Eating- Ensure that you follow a proper healthy diet. Eat fruits, green vegetables, and grains in adequate amounts to ensure good health. Nuts are beneficial as well; have some every day to treat the disease.
Regular Exercise- Proper exercise is indispensable when dealing with Type-2 Diabetes. Remember, this doesn’t have to mean ‘strict weight loss regimen.’
Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level- Keeping a proper check on blood sugar level is mandatory. If your doctor recommends it, you may need to record your blood sugar level. When you need to take an insulin supplement/shot, blood sugar levels need to monitored frequently.
Medication And Insulin Therapy- Metformin is the most popular Type-2 Diabetes treatment recommended by doctors. It makes your tissues sensitive to insulin. Other medicines include Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides, and Thiazolidinediones.
Insulin therapy was initially the last resort doctors took. Today, though, it is the most recommended form of Type-2 Diabetes treatment. Normal digestion interferes with the insulin you get from food. This means that insulin injections are a lot more effective.